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Cold Welding Spelled out | Fractory

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Chilly welding is a reliable-condition welding course of action that calls for minimal or no heat to be a part of two or far more metal surfaces alongside one another. The very first scientific proof of cold welding was recorded in 1724 when two lead balls have been joined with each other by twisting them immediately after currently being brought into contact. In the 1940s the cold welding system was formally recognised as a common supplies phenomenon in which two clean metal surfaces pressed jointly would adhere to make contact with in a vacuum.

Whilst chilly welding took several years to be familiarised, it has become an irreplaceable technique for some industries, staying a basic nevertheless ingenious system.

What Is Cold Welding?

Chilly welded lap joints have a minimized cross-portion butt joints make a flash which is later on eradicated.

Cold welding, also acknowledged as cold pressure welding or get hold of welding, is a welding system that joins two clear metal surfaces with each other by employing plenty of pressure to make metallurgical bonds. Contrary to other welding procedures that use warmth and molten content to fuse the metals alongside one another, cold welding has the capability to be part of metals without the need of heat electricity to make a in the vicinity of-best bond in between the resources.

Beneath standard atmospheric situations, the metal area reacts with oxygen building an oxide layer. This oxide layer functions as a barrier that stops the atoms from forming a bond. In order to cleanse the metals for chilly welding, the oxide layer is eradicated by shearing, brushing or applying other mechanical and chemical strategies.

The metals should be at the very least to some degree ductile and not have been through severe hardening. An additional limitation of this approach is that the metals can not consist of any carbon. Cold welding is effective greatest when it is conducted in a vacuum, where oxygen is not present.

Some men and women are unfamiliar with cold welding, as it is an unconventional welding procedure and differs from the common thought of welding wherever heat is included. It is ideal to understand some so-named cold welding procedures which are actually scorching welding processes that either use a conductive electrode or surface area.

Chilly Metal Transfer

Chilly metal transfer is a fusion arc welding approach that makes use of an electric arc to develop weld joints. This MIG welding process is mislabelled as chilly welding considering that the warmth utilized in the weld pool is 90% much less than the conventional MIG system.

TIG Chilly Welding

The so-named TIG chilly welds are attained by appreciably cutting down the warmth input and exactly making use of an electrical arc to a small place just for a portion of a 2nd. The heat dissipates rapidly, so this process lacks fusion and is productive only in signing up for slim sheets of metals.

Cold Welding Method

As a pre-requisite of the cold welding method, the metals are cleaned by taking away the oxide layers on the floor by wire brushing or shearing the surfaces. Once the floor contamination is taken off, the metals can then be pressed alongside one another less than superior strain employing industrial machines.

This welding procedure performs on a microstructural amount between the metal atoms, as the electrons will transfer between the two cleanse surfaces that occur into get in touch with. The chilly weld bond is powerful with several impurities and rough patches but can also be significantly weaker if contaminants or floor irregularities are present.

Additionally, the time concerning the planning system of cleansing the metals and the precise cold welding method is important. This time window is small as the atoms on the clean up metal surface start to react with the environment. Prolonged publicity might leave an outstanding amount of money of impurities that will have an affect on the strength of the bond afterwards on.

Only a modest quantity of tools are desired for this somewhat easy welding strategy, a wire brush to take away the area oxide layer and a cold strain welding equipment to enable the freshly uncovered metal atmos to appear into get in touch with.

Chilly Force Welding Machine

A usual cold strain welding equipment incorporates a system for implementing pressure (punch push), a punch resource or dies that act as guides for the metals, rollers for the wires or sheets, and a static load to implement the strain possibly mechanically or pneumatically.

When cold welding wires, a die with the proper dimensions is picked for the wire and is then put in the chilly welding device. Most of the time, wire chilly welding devices are equipped with a guillotine to trim/shear the ends of the metal to take away the oxide layers and to obtain flat surfaces.

The two wires or strips are then joined using high pressures. A flash is created in the get hold of area among the two metal surfaces and the surplus metals are taken off. Cold welding wires and extremely slim sheets have been completely utilised in the semiconductor industry, wherein elements are compact and sensitive.

The dimension of the chilly force welding equipment can differ a whole lot based on the sort and dimension of the material. These can selection from handheld devices that are mostly utilized to cold weld copper wires, to machines that are managed pneumatically.

Metals Appropriate for Cold Welding

Metals with similar metallic constructions and non-ferrous delicate metals get the job done finest for chilly welding, but joining dissimilar metals is also achievable. Here are some of the most prevalent metals that are usually cold welded:

Purposes for Chilly Welding

Nanoscale chilly welding

Ultrathin gold nanowires can be joined in just seconds as a result of mechanical contact. The trials have revealed terrific effects as the welds have the exact same crystal orientation and mechanical qualities as the rest of the nanowire. Nanoscale chilly welding has also been executed between gold & silver and silver alloys, hence indicating that with further more analysis, the procedure may be normally relevant.

Aerospace & automotive industry

These industries constantly search for combos of light-weight and purposeful resources to strengthen performance, gasoline usage and so on. This is where by cold welding will come in helpful, specifically in welding aluminium and stainless steel. This technique lets the products not to be subjected to excessive amounts of heat, thus reducing the possibility of getting way too brittle.

Underground wire lines

Cold welding is an extraordinary answer in situations the place introducing warmth to the setting can be harmful. A well-recognised example is the harmless joining of underground wire traces as a result of chilly welding, where warmth can a hazard given that it could possibly appear into speak to with explosive gases.

Production industry

Warmth exchangers made use of for refrigeration make use of cold welding when making tubular passages in large-sized sheets. Some storage or packaging devices also utilise chilly welding when building butt or lap joints. As an added gain, joining the metals with out heat allows to hold the integrity of the supplies.

Rewards of Chilly Welding

  1. Cold welding produces clean and solid welds. The energy of the designed bond is close to the mother or father metal, if not the exact.

  2. Cold welding doesn’t create a heat impacted zone (HAZ), which weakens the metal’s framework.

  3. Cold welding lets to sign up for dissimilar metals this kind of as copper and aluminum alloys.

  4. The course of action is quick with nearly no deformation and warping of the metals.

  5. Chilly welding get the job done can be carried out in warmth-delicate environments exactly where using other welding procedures would not be considered safe and sound.

Cons of Cold Welding

  1. Chilly welding involves generous preparation time to cleanse the metals.

  2. Only selected components can be chilly welded. The metals have to be ductile and not have any carbon material in them.

  3. Cold welding irregular surfaces is complicated, the procedure provides the best effects when performed on flat surfaces.

  4. Joint strength can very easily be compromised by contamination. This can be triggered by oxide levels, surface area irregularities and other unforeseeable good reasons.

  5. A part of the content is wasted all through preparing (shearing, cutting, brushing)

Accidental Cold Welding

Cold welding offers the ideal results when the approach is carried out in a vacuum, meaning that no oxygen is current. This is why there are circumstances wherever chilly welding has unintentionally taken put in spacecraft elements.

The Galileo spacecraft is a fantastic case in point of an engineering design and style circumstance whereby the possibility of accidental cold welding was not regarded. This almost hampered the whole procedure, costing NASA billions of bucks. On October 9, 1989, Galileo was released to assemble information and facts about Jupiter. When at last reaching the earth immediately after 18 months of place journey, 3 out of the eighteen specialised antennas, that were supposed to unfurl, experienced been spontaneously cold welded jointly.

The components in the antenna’s mobile framework got cleaned more than time thanks to absence of oxygen and were being fused jointly when the sections arrived into contact underneath substantial stress. The relative motion among the surfaces does not exclude the likelihood for cold welds to happen. Which means that chilly welding can at the same time get location alongside fretting and galling as the metals are subjected to recurring influence and vibrations.

At present, there are countermeasures enforced to avoid accidental chilly welding. Some vital locations designers and engineers concentrate on to avert undesired fusion are resources selection, lubrication, coating and reduction of the contact area.

On the other hand, the cold welding phenomenon will allow astronauts to effectively complete any necessary mend do the job exterior the spacecraft.

Significant Details to Don’t forget

Unlike other welding procedures in which the metals undertake the liquid or molten phase (arc welding, friction welding, laser welding, and so forth), chilly welding allows to sign up for metals without having any heat involved, This system is characterised by uniform and solid success as it does not leave a warmth-affected zone in the weld. While to receive great results, it is incredibly significant to take away the oxide levels and be range of any floor irregularities. Continue to keep in mind that the process is very best executed in a vacuum.

Cold welding aids to solve some of the elaborate challenges that a number of industries deal with but it is considerably from superior, as it has some limitations regarding resources. It can not be done on metals that include any sort of carbon. This is the major limiting component due to the fact delicate steel is by much the most welded metal.

The Bri-Stor Team becomes The HEX Group in 2022

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Dublin engineering and manufacturing business, Bri-Stor Group, which involves multi-award-successful companies Bri-Stor Devices, Alpha Production, Atlas Coating, Hex Graphics and HEX Residing has announced that from 3rd May perhaps 2022 the Team will be acknowledged as The HEX Team.

With the corporation launching its Alpha Manufacturing Chemical Systems enterprise in 2021 coupled with the new launch of HEX Dwelling – a new division building and manufacturing leisure and backyard products – 2022 is the time to present a new Team brand name that far better reflects the businesses’ complete market place offer.

Martin Smith, The HEX Group CEO, has led the progress of the new model and he opinions: “The Bri-Stor Team has stood for planet-class engineering and production for just about 40 yrs, and I am happy of our achievements as a Team.  From its inception, our family values have underpinned the achievement of our business enterprise, ensuing in long-time period trusted partnerships and today, we continue on to type powerful alliances in new and enjoyable markets.

“This is much more than a identify adjust.  It is our opportunity to current to the market place a new and reinvigorated method that greater reflects the breadth and diversity of our total Group offer.  For people familiar with the Bri-Stor Group, the hexagon condition has always fashioned component of our manufacturer tale, so it seemed fitting that we carry it to the fore and not drop sight of how it all started.  These are exceptionally interesting times for the business and as we keep on to develop and increase our marketplace existence, we generate extra employment and further add to the wider economic prosperity of the area.”

The five buying and selling divisions of The HEX Team continue being central to the industrial output of the business, still new for 2022, the company is formally launching HEX Occupations – the sixth component of the Group.  With a highly revered Apprenticeship and Larger Apprenticeship programme in its 12th year, the Team is now centered on a wider men and women-progress method which involves several new initiatives which include The HEX Group Accelerate Programme.

Martin Smith points out additional: “We have constantly positioned a wonderful offer of emphasis on the advancement of younger individuals trying to find a profession in engineering and manufacturing and very last year, we more improved our Apprenticeship Programme with the start of 9 Bigger Apprenticeships.  As we proceed to develop the Group, we recognise much more than ever that we will need to give the broader team just about every option to increase their job with both of those official and informal schooling and education.  I want The HEX Group to be a small business that people aspire to join and in carrying out so we boost ‘family’ as the central worth that will proceed to drive our good enterprise forward.”

Profile of a Surface (GD&T) Explained

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GD&T consists of 14 geometrical tolerances that can be applied to any part feature to control them. These tolerances are described in detail in ASME Y14.5-2009.

Many of these 14 tolerances have features similar to each other in the way they control a part’s shape and dimensions, therefore it is important to understand what is the intended use of the part beforehand.

For ease of use, these 14 tolerances are divided into five main groups.

  1. Form

  2. Orientation

  3. Location

  4. Profile

  5. Runout

In this article, we shall study the profile of a surface (or surface profile) callout that is part of the profile group mentioned above. These two callouts can help us manufacture geometries that have complex outer shapes with impressive details.

What Is the Profile of a Surface in GD&T?

The profile of a surface is an extremely powerful and versatile GD&T callout. It can be used on nearly all kinds of complex outer shapes where other tolerances are not easily applicable.

Some examples of surface profile use:

  1. Aerospace: airplane wing, air intake for engine, turbine blades

  2. Automotive sector: BiW, A-pillar, complex outer shape

  3. Product design: design of complex outer shapes for consumer appliances such as coffee makers, smartphones and displays.

GD&T Profile of a Surface

Profile of a surface controls a part’s surface profile in accordance with the CAD model or the drawing. Many engineering parts such as turbine blades, car BiWs and airplane wings have highly complex surfaces. These surfaces need to be manufactured to great detail for functional reasons. The profile of a surface callout can help us manufacture these parts by controlling the surface profile during manufacturing and measuring results after production.

The profile of a surface generates a virtual surface that acts as the baseline to measure the actual surface. Thus, it is possible to create highly intricate surface profiles as long as they can be created as a CAD model. The required surface’s specification must also be within the capabilities of the fabrication process to be used.

Surface Profile Tolerance Zone

Surface profile tolerance zone

The surface profile tolerance zone consists of two parallel planes, bilaterally disposed on each side of the ideal curved surface (aka the true profile). Both planes follow the shape of the ideal surface and the distance between them is the tolerance limit for the callout. A smaller tolerance limit gives tighter control but may be difficult to manufacture. The points on the part’s entire surface must lie within the specified tolerance zone for it to be accepted.

Surface Profile Relation to Other GD&T Symbols

As mentioned above, the profile of a surface can effectively replace almost all of the GD&T Callouts whether they are curved or flat. Let’s see a few examples:

Profile of a surface vs form controls

When used without a datum, the profile of a surface can replace all the form controls.

The four form controls are

  1. Flatness

  2. Cylindricity

  3. Circularity

  4. Straightness

These form controls constrain the form of a part by creating a tolerance zone between two parallel surfaces. These planes can be either flat or cylindrical.

Profile of a surface vs orientation controls

When used with a datum callout, the profile of a surface can replace all the orientation controls.

The orientation controls are:

  1. Parallelism

  2. Perpendicularity

  3. Angularity

In order to orient a part feature in GD&T, we need a reference point such as a datum plane, line, or axis. By specifying a datum in the profile of a surface’s feature control frame, we can replicate the function of all orientation controls to maintain a surface in a particular position.

Profile of a surface vs line profile tolerance

The profile of a surface tolerance is the 3D equivalent of the line profile tolerance. While the profile of a line controls a specific cross-section on the part, the profile of a surface controls every cross-section across the entire length of the surface.

There are times when both profile controls may be applied together. In such a case the line profile’s tolerance is tighter than the profile of a surface. This is done to achieve greater control at critical cross-sections while the profile of a surface maintains a looser overall control over the full surface.

Profile of a Surface Feature Control Frame

Surface profile feature control frame

A leader arrow connects the feature control frame (further referred to as FCF) of the profile of a surface tolerance to the part feature. Like any other FCFs in GD&T, the profile of a surface FCF can be divided into three distinct blocks. These are:

Geometrical tolerance block

Profile of a surface, surface profile symbol

This block defines the geometrical tolerance applied to a feature by housing its symbol. The profile of a surface symbol is an inverted semicircle with a horizontal diameter connecting its two ends.

Feature tolerance block

This block contains specific information about how a tolerance applies to a feature. Since for the profile of a surface, the tolerance zone is a total wide tolerance zone which is the default zone, there is no special symbol for it. This is followed by the tolerance limit. This limit, also known as the tolerance value, is the distance between the two planes of the tolerance zone and is represented by its numerical value in the FCF.

This number is typically followed by material condition modifiers (MMC, LMC, etc.), but these do not apply to the profile of surface control.

Datum block

This is the third block in GD&T that houses the reference planes for the tolerances. In the case of a profile of surface control, the use of a datum is optional. When a datum is not present, the callout only controls the feature’s form. But if we want to control additional aspects such as the orientation, location, and size, we must define one or more datums as needed.

When to Use Profile of a Surface Tolerance?

As mentioned in the above examples, the profile of a surface can effectively replace almost all of the form and location tolerances. So the question then becomes:

Why isn’t it used everywhere?

The answer boils down to pricing. In order to measure the surface profile, the part has to be measured via a CMM machine. CMM machines can measure either with a probe or with a laser. Regardless both of these options are expensive because:

  1. It takes time to program the machine and then measure. This is not feasible for parts in running production.

  2. They require skilled operators: The operator should not just be trained in measurement, but he/she should also know how to interpret the drawings. Such operators don’t come cheap.

Hence it is strongly advised to engineers to make sure that the surface profile tolerance is necessary and no other GD&T can fulfil the requirement.

Important Points to Remember

Here are some best practices and important points to consider when using the profile of surface tolerance.

  1. As with all GD&T, make sure that basic dimensions are used, when adding numerical dimensions for features controlled with surface profile control.

  2. The numerical tolerance range for the surface profile depends on the following factor:

    1. Is the intended surface exposed or assembled?

    2. What kind of environmental factors will the part be subject to? Putting tight profile control on a bumper panel for example does not make sense if the part will expand and contract depending on the temperature

Therefore it is extremely important that tolerance chain analysis is conducted beforehand to find the numerical values that are put in the drawing.


The surface profile is an extremely powerful GD&T symbol that can be used for complex surface profiles for all kinds of parts. However, it should be used keeping in mind the associated costs for measuring and verification of parts.

What is Molybdenum Made use of For?

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At Specific Metals Fabrication, we create and source a variety of refractory metals – supplies that are expertly manufactured to be hugely resistant to warmth, put on and other destructive forces.

The metals we inventory include things like tungsten, tantalum, niobium, zirconium, titanium and molybdenum.

In this short article, we search at a handful of of the properties and takes advantage of of the closing metal in that checklist – Molybdenum. What are its most well-liked apps, and why is it specially suited to these individual purposes?

Properties of Molybdenum

Molybdenum has the chemical image (Mo) and the atomic selection 42. It is a changeover metal in Team 6 of the periodic desk of factors.

The metal is located oxidised in numerous minerals and is often a by-products of copper or tungsten mining, which will have to then be isolated in buy to purpose as a pure product.

One of the advantages of molybdenum is its exceptionally significant melting point: 2620 levels celsius. That’s better than the melting position of titanium, niobium or zirconium.

It is also exceptionally really hard – sitting down at 5.5 on the Mohs scale or 1500 MPa. The only more durable metals we present are tungsten, titanium and niobium.

The metal delivers significant thermal conductivity, as properly as a corrosion resistance to glass and other metals, which helps make it very versatile and valuable for a range of programs.

Makes use of of Molybdenum

Thanks to its high melting position, Molybdenum is on a regular basis utilized to make merchandise these as sintering trays or boats, plasma spraying nozzles and furnace parts.

Its higher conductivity stages lend it to charge carrying applications, or use in the fabrication of electrodes and sputtering targets.

Since it is extremely difficult and not quickly corroded, the metal is also well-liked for the manufacture of aerospace elements, clinical sections, and glass stirrers.

How to Purchase Molybdenum

You can acquire Molybdenum from Distinctive Metals Fabrication in rod, bar, furnace, plate, or sheet kind. Our team of experts can also create customised components and fittings for you, depending on your specific specs.

We can also fabricate products from Molybdenum TZM – an more-strong alloy of Titanium, Zirconium, and Molybdenum.

To discuss your requirements with us these days, merely make an enquiry by filling in our clear-cut on line get hold of sort.

We’ll be far more than happy to discuss to you about the Molybdenum products you want for any undertaking – and we’ll make guaranteed you receive the metal in the ideal amount of money, sort, or component style according to the details you give us.

We can give up coming working day delivery on a lot of machined parts, welded products, or stock items. If you are seeking for a specifically professional item, make sure you really do not wait to phone our staff on 016903875 or 01268 280665, or email info@nationalsteelfabrication.ie to examine what you have to have.

Exclusive Metals Fabrication can also generate and address elements created from tungsten, tantalum, niobium, zirconium, titanium, or create rods, bars, sheets, or other kinds of pure refractory metal.

We also offer aqua blasting and bead blasting, product or service fabrication, and wrought product companies. Get in touch with us for a quote currently.

Charlotte Allen: Reflecting On My Apprenticeship So Much

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1st calendar year Apprentice at Alpha Production Charlotte Allen has thrown herself into her Apprenticeship from day a single, and subsequent on from her past blog site, Charlotte updates up on what is she’s been up to these previous couple of months:

“So, the place to start out? I am now 8 months into my apprenticeship with Alpha Production and a good deal has improved due to the fact I 1st wrote about what it is like to be an Apprentice. Through these previous 8 months I have attended a amount of situations this sort of as Careers Fairs with our Apprentice Manager William Davies-Hill to explore with Calendar year 11 and 10s all about the astounding possibilities that can appear from going into an apprenticeship following leaving university. It is so inspiring to converse to the youthful folks, especially ladies who are in the similar posture I was in only a calendar year or so in the past, and find out about their thoughts on engineering and persuade these girls to consider the leap and join myself and so quite a few other folks in the industry.

“I have also ventured onto the factory flooring for the 1st time given that starting up the apprenticeship and – wow – there was so considerably to find out! From investing a week with some of the 2nd-12 months apprentices generating crawling boards for our sister organization Bri-Stor Units, to mastering all about how to match applications into the CNC Punch equipment. I have also had the privilege of doing work inside the model-new Chemical Technologies manufacturing facility below the supervision of the manager Justin Kelly, acquiring an perception to all the ground-breaking do the job that is heading to be having spot in the factory and supporting set up generation ready for June.

“During the Easter Holiday seasons, us initial 12 months apprentices took the yearly trip to Elan Valley. It was a superb week entire of workforce developing exercises to actually get us performing superior as a group. We climbed our reasonable share of Dames, tried to construct a raft to get throughout the river and heaps of orienteering things to do. On our final day we assisted the neighborhood nursery spruce up their outside the house backyard space. It was this sort of a enjoyment to give again to the wonderful group and give the young children a new and enhanced house to commit their time.

“On a private take note, I finished the 7 days off extremely delighted as I ultimately passed my driving check- so no much more early mornings and mentor outings to the JCB Academy for me. Hooray!

“Meanwhile at the JCB Academy, I have started off my welding class – I certainly consider a learn course with Alpha’s incredibly possess pro welder Chloe Sales is wanted! It is good to be in a position to glimpse back from wherever I started out and truly see the development, I’ve designed from staying terrified to make problems to mastering from them every single one working day with the assist from our tutors. I have cherished every next of the courses so far and I am certain it will only grow for the months remaining to arrive.”

MIG Welding Explained | Fractory

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MIG welding is an arc welding process that joins two metals together using a consumable wire electrode. As the wire strikes the welding arc, the welding area is protected by a shielding gas to prevent weld contamination. This process started gaining global popularity between the late 1940s and early 1950s as a tool for welding aluminum and other common metals.

Fast forward a few decades and MIG welding has become one of the most attractive welding techniques thanks to its unrivaled speed while offering consistency and quality at the same time. Given its simple and straightforward process, MIG welding is a great starting point for welders who can then later transition to other more complex welding techniques.

What Is MIG Welding?

Metal inert gas (MIG) welding is a subtype of gas metal arc welding (GMAW). In this welding process, the base materials are joined together through a welding current. Filler metal is constantly fed through the welding gun. As the electric arc melts the electrode wire it is then fused along with the base metals in the weld pool. Simultaneously, the shielding gas travels along the welding gun to keep the weld free from atmospheric contamination.

Although MIG and TIG welding are quite similar in several aspects, they have some key differences. MIG uses a consumable wire electrode which is fused with the base metals in the weld pool, whereas TIG uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the use of filler metal is optional and is added to the weld pool separately.

As the wire welding process has diversified and improved over time, different shielding gases have been taken into consideration for various types of metals and welding procedures. Metal active gas welding (MAG) has become another option alongside MIG, as it creates an avenue for different weld results and materials such as carbon steel.

Difference Between MIG and MAG Welding

Both metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) are fusion welding processes and belong to the GMAW family. They’re often seen as one welding technique because apart from the shielding gas, the welding process is exactly the same. Both of these processes are performed using the same welding machine.

  • MIG welding uses inert shielding gases (argon, helium, nitrogen, or a mixture of the three). These inert gases are stable during welding, wherein it does not diffuse particles to the weld bead. MIG is generally used for welding aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium, and other non-ferrous metals and alloys.

  • MAG welding uses active shielding gases or a mixture of active and inert gases (CO2, Ar + 2 to 5% O2, Ar + 5 to 25% CO2 and Ar + CO2 + O2). The two common active gases in MAG welding are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Due to the extreme temperature during welding, these active gases disintegrate and alter the chemical composition of the weld bead. This type of welding is generally preferred for carbon steel (especially mild steel) and stainless steel.

Between the two, MAG welding is desired if you need to alter the chemical and mechanical properties of the weld.

MIG Welding Process

First off, all the metals must be clean to weld. Rust and impurities should be removed using a metal brush. As with any other welding project, it is important to always wear appropriate safety gear. Now let’s proceed to the welding process itself.

How MIG Welding Works

MIG welding uses a constant voltage power supply to create an electric arc that fuses the parent material with the wire that is continuously fed through the welding torch. At the same time, an inert gas is extracted from a supply tank and flows towards the gun, allowing the shielding gas to evenly protect the weld pool from impurities.

There are a few things that need familiarising before using a MIG welding machine. Here are some details you’d certainly want to check out.

Metal transfer mode

MIG welding has some distinct modes for transferring the metal wire to the weld pool. These variations allow you to have quality welds depending on the application, type of metal or finish.

GMAW Modes of Transfer

GMAW Modes of Transfer

  • Short-circuit welding (aka dip transfer or microwire) – Electrical short-circuits are established as the metal wire touches the weld pool. To achieve this, MIG welding machines are operated with low voltage, keeping the size of the weld ball fairly small. The limitation in using short-circuit welding is its inability to weld thick materials.

  • Globular transfer – The welding current and voltages are raised above the recommended maximum values, creating an uncontrolled short circuit. Molten metal droops into the weld pool and typically has a higher diameter than the wire feed itself. This aggressive method causes erratic movement to the weld which in turn generates spatter. Its use is limited to flat and horizontal welds and lack of fusion in the weld is quite common. Globular transfer mainly finds use when welding thicker materials since large droplets and high heat input allow for good penetration. However, high temperatures lead to changes in the metal’s microstructure and to the formation of heat affected zone (HAZ).

  • Spray welding – Increasing the welding current and voltage further will cause a high deposition rate for the metal, almost similar to a water hose. This technique is optimal for joining thicker materials, allowing for greater penetration with tiny little droplets of molten metal. Spray welding offers strong, aesthetically good-looking welds with little spatter as no short circuits are occurring. High heat input restricts the use of this mode on thinner materials.

  • Pulsed mode – This mode is generally used for welding stainless steel and aluminum. It combines the advantages of other forms of transfer while minimising their disadvantages. The material is transferred in a controlled droplet form. The pulses create spatter-free welds and a lower heat input allows using this method on thinner materials.

Wire electrode

There are several types of wire electrodes available to tackle different projects and metals. As these electrodes run through the same wire feed unit, they behave differently during the welding process and leave distinguishable results.

  1. Hard wire is the general wire used by most MIG users as it is affordable and easy to control. This wire usually comes in large reels and can be used at different angles. Typical hardwires used are in a combination of 72/25 argon and Co2 ratio.

  2. Flux core wire requires no shielding gas for the welding project as the flux is built into the wire itself. Portability is a great bonus with flux-cored wires as there is no need to carry a gas tank around. The absence of an additional shielding gas makes flux-core more suited to working outdoors and in windy conditions. This is extremely convenient and user-friendly but on the downside, these wires create slag during welding. Investing in a good metal brush will come in handy for the cleaning procedure.

Inert gas

As the metals fuse in the welding zone, MIG welding gas is supplied through the welding torch to keep the weld pool free from contamination. These inactive gases have no effect or reaction to the weld, keeping the metal’s properties intact.

The most commonly used gases in MIG welding are argon and helium. Sometimes they’re mixed with other gases as these two noble gases are quite expensive.

Additionally, semi-inert gases can be used that contain small percentages of carbon dioxide (CO2). Cheaper than argon and helium, CO2 allows for deeper penetration while resulting in more spatter in the weld pool. This means that more cleanup is required to clean the welds after gas metal arc welding.

In specific situations, non-inert gases are used in very small percentages to further increase metal penetration. The downside is that oxygen creates rust and oxidation to the weld metal, which can affect the weld quality.

Welding torch

A welding torch or gun is a specialised tool for fusing and melting metals. MIG torches offer versatility in their application for a variety of metal thicknesses and types of metal. Similar to TIG, MIG torches are divided into two groups:

  • Gas-cooled welding torches are normally enough for the common welder doing minor projects. With larger projects overheating might become an issue.

  • Water-cooled welding torches can be used at higher amperages and provide more power. They also offer smoother control over the contact tip of the nozzle. However, they cost 20-30% more than gas-cooled torches and require the welding machine to have a water-cooled system installed in the unit.

Aside from choosing the welding torch, it is important to have the correct components installed for the project at hand. One of these components is the liners in the welding gun. Liners are guides that ensure the smooth feeding of the wire during welding. Their use is rather straightforward, as they need to match the type of metal along with the wire diameter of the spool.

Take note that there are four different nozzle types used in a welding torch: recessed, flush, protruding, and adjustable. The simplest way to decide which nozzle to use is to identify the type of wire electrode used in the project.

Power source

semi-automatic mig mag welding machine

The power source in a MIG welder is mostly set into DC as it offers constant voltage in contrast to TIG and stick welding which use alternating current for some materials. Modern MIG welding equipment auto-corrects the current when the arc length and wire feed speed change, allowing the MIG welder to create a stable weld puddle.

  • DC positive polarity – In DCEP (direct current electrode positive) or reverse polarity, the electrons flow from the contact tip of the electrode to the base metal. This is the most widely used setting since it offers a stable arc, ensuring better bead quality, weld penetration, and less spatter. Suitable for welding both thick and thin materials.
  • DC negative polarity – In DCEN (direct current electrode negative) or straight polarity, the electrons travel from the base metal to the tip of the electrode wire. This method offers faster deposition rates than DCEP but it has several drawbacks such as lack of penetration and not enough heat in the weld pool. Not suitable for thicker materials but is sometimes used for welding thin metals.
  • AC power – AC is hardly ever used in metal inert gas welding. It is used for welding non-ferrous metals while operating under a tight budget. Other welding methods are preferred instead of using AC power, as the trouble of losing arc control and spatter in the weld pool are bad as it is.

Advantages of MIG Welding

  1. The continuously fed wire allows for a fast, uninterrupted welding procedure.

  2. A MIG torch handles horizontal, vertical or flat welding positions with ease.

  3. MIG welding is cleaner than most welding processes, leaving little slag and minimal spatter compared to stick welding. The quality and looks offered by tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding are still unmatched though.

  4. MIG welding is one of the simplest welding techniques to learn.

  5. Suitable for a wide range of metals and alloys.

  6. The machine allows you to adjust a variety of weld settings, such as wire speed and amperage.

Disadvantages of MIG Welding

  1. There are other welding processes that offer more control to the weld (e.g. TIG).

  2. MIG welding equipment has a relatively high initial cost.

  3. MIG is generally unsuitable for outdoor welding with flux-cored arc welding being the exception here.

  4. Portability is an issue as MIG welders are heavy, considering the roll of wire and the tank containing the shielding gas.

  5. Spatter can form in the nozzle from the molten residue as the welding wire is fed into the torch.

Important Points to Remember

MIG welding is a cost-efficient and diverse welding process, making it one of the most attractive welding methods, especially in industrial environments. It is used extensively in the sheet metal industry but is quite commonly used for thicker workpieces as well.

MIG process can be automated by using welding robots and thus it is probably the most common welding method used in serial production. In the automotive industry, the process is often used as a substitute for resistance welding. As companies want to increase production capacity whilst keeping reasonable quality and efficiency, it makes sense that they most often resort to MIG/MAG welding.

With the continuous research and development into different combinations of shielding gases, polarities, etc, it is clear that the importance of MIG/MAG welding won’t be diminishing and these processes will continue to define the manufacturing industry for decades to come.

What is Tungsten Utilized For?

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Tungsten is a rare, obviously developing metal with the chemical image W – as it is also regarded as Wolfram. This versatile material has a variety of makes use of across many industries. So what are tungsten’s attributes, and how is it typically utilized?

In this post, Exclusive Metals – expert fabricators and suppliers of major good quality refractory metals for all programs – present a run-down of the features of tungsten metal and describe how it is most normally utilized.

Why Tungsten? Houses and Works by using

As a materials, tungsten is highly flexible and tough. It has a melting point of 3422°C – the best of any pure metal.

For this purpose, it is consistently employed in environments the place really large temperatures are typical. It is made use of to manufacture goods this sort of as jet engine components, gentle bulb filaments and crucibles.

It can also be made use of as aspect of an alloy in purchase to make other metals much more resistant to heat – in addition, it offers an incredibly very low amount of thermal expansion, meaning it is less probable to warp or swell when scorching.

It has a tensile power of 1510 megapascals, too – the greatest of all pure metals – and this, along with its minimal thermal growth, will make it ideal for the fabrication of superior-speed instruments.

Tungsten is also incredibly dense. At 19.3 g/cm3, its density is 1.7% higher than that of direct. This means that a smaller quantity of the metal weighs considerably more than greater amounts of less dense materials.

As a consequence, the metal is a great alternative when it will come to ballast – specifically for racing automobiles and plane. Its density also tends to make it perfect for use as a radiation shield.

Tungsten’s density is similar to that of gold, so jewellery designed from this significantly less high priced metal is significantly preferred.

Tungsten conducts energy really well, earning it the excellent material for the fabrication of electrical parts this kind of as electrodes, conductors and metallic movies.

Last but not least, the metal is prized for its corrosion-resistance. Thanks to its potential to endure saltwater devoid of becoming corroded, it is frequently employed in the shipbuilding and fishing industries. It can be conveniently applied outside for prolonged intervals of time, and is also resistant to solvents and acid.

Products and Solutions of Distinctive Metals

Distinctive Metals can fabricate and offer a range of high quality tungsten products, like tungsten wire and tungsten bar, as effectively as billets, sheets, crucibles and plenty of other products besides.

As effectively as tungsten, we supply products made from molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium.

You can also get in contact with us to use our expert expert services – such as machining, welding, aqua blasting, bead blasting and the fabrication of wrought products and alloys.

Regardless of whether you know particularly what you are looking for, or you are still creating your specification, do not hesitate to get in touch with Unique Metals to talk to for our suggestions and direction.

For even further information, only get hold of our knowledgeable crew now applying our useful on the net speak to sort. We will be happy to assist you.

Fibre Lasers – Working Principles, Applications & More

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Lasers have been around for a long time but their use in commercial applications is quite recent. It took engineers a while to strengthen laser capabilities to a point where they could compete with traditional manufacturing methods in terms of cost, time and ease of use.

The fibre laser technology, for instance, was first developed back in the 60s. Back then, this technology was still in its nascent phase. Only in the 1990s did it become fit for commercial use. Since then, the technology has come a long way in terms of its applications and efficiency. In the 60s it was possible to only generate a few tens of milliwatts, today we have fibre lasers that can generate over 1000 watts with reliable final properties.

In this article, we will discuss how a fibre laser works, where it is used and why it is often the optimal choice when compared to alternatives. But first, let us understand what it is.

What Is a Fibre Laser?

Fibre lasers are a type of solid-state lasers that use optical fibres as their active gain medium. In these lasers, a fibre made of silicate or phosphate glass absorbs raw light from the pump laser diodes and transforms it into a laser beam with a specific wavelength.

To achieve this, the optical fibre is doped. Doping refers to the practice of mixing a rare-earth element into the fibre. By using different doping elements, laser beams can be created with a wide range of wavelengths.

Some common doping elements in their increasing order of emitted wavelengths are neodymium (780-1100nm), ytterbium (1000-1100nm), praseodymium (1300nm), erbium (1460-1640nm), thulium (1900-250nm), holmium (2025-2200nm), and dysprosium (2600-3400nm).

Because of such a wide range of produced wavelengths, fibre lasers are perfect for a variety of applications such as laser cutting, texturing, cleaning, engraving, drilling, marking and welding. This also enables fibre lasers to find use in many different sectors such as medicine, defence, telecommunications, automotive, spectroscopy, electrical, manufacturing and transportation.

How a Fibre Laser Works

Schematic diagram of fibre laser

A fibre laser is named after its active gain medium which is an optical fibre. Any fibre laser machine that produces a well-collimated high-power laser does it in five main stages. These are as follows:

  • Creation of pump light

  • Collection and travel into the optical fibre

  • Pump light passes through the optical fibre

  • Stimulated emission in the laser cavity

  • Amplification of raw laser light into a laser beam

Creation of pump light

This is where the energy for the laser beam enters the system. In fibre lasers, we use electricity as the energy source. Diodes known as pump laser diodes convert electrical energy into light energy. In high-quality diodes, the conversion is reliable and efficient and produces light energy only with specific wavelengths.

Incidentally, low-quality laser diodes were one of the major obstacles that impeded the progress of laser technology for about 3 decades.

In most cases, this pump light or pump beam is produced in parts by multiple laser diodes and is then coupled in the fibre optic cable. For instance, there are 20w laser machines that combine pump light from 11 laser diodes in the fibre optic cable.

Collection and travel into the optical fibre

A coupler combines the light from multiple laser diodes into one. This coupler is a part of the optical fibre. It has multiple entry points on one side, each of which connects to a fibre from an individual laser diode.

On the other side, there’s a single exit point that connects to the main fibre. Once all the light is collected, it travels to the laser medium or the gain medium.

Pump light passes through the optical fibre

Total Internal Reflection in Optical Fibres

Total Internal Reflection in Optical Fibres

In the next stage, the laser diode’s light flows through the optical fibre to the laser medium. The fibre consists of two main components: the core and the cladding. The core is made of silica glass and provides the pathway for light. This core is covered by cladding. When the light reaches the cladding, all of it is reflected back into the core.

Fibre lasers invariably lose some power through heat, but the excellent surface area to volume ratio facilitates effective heat dissipation leading to very little heat-related wear and tear.

On further travel through the optical fibre, the light eventually reaches the doped part of the fibre. This part is known as the laser cavity.

Stimulated emission in the laser cavity

When the laser diode light reaches the doped fibre, it strikes the rare earth element’s atoms and excites its electrons to a higher energy level. In time, this leads to a population inversion which is necessary for the production of a standard laser.

Population inversion in laser refers to the state of a gain medium in which a greater number of electrons are in an excited state compared to those that are not. It is called population inversion because this is the opposite of the normal state where only a few atoms have excited electrons.

When some of these electrons naturally fall to lower energy levels, they emit photons of only a specific wavelength. These photons interact with other excited electrons, stimulating them to emit similar photons and retreat to their initial lower energy levels. This is the physical process of “stimulated emission” that is a part of the acronym LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation).

The electrons that return to their original relaxed state are re-excited by the incoming light from pump diodes. Eventually, the process reaches an equilibrium between the excited and relaxed electrons, giving us a steady flow of raw laser light. This light needs to be refined for it to be used in different applications.

Amplification of raw laser light into a laser beam

Before using the raw laser light from the doped fibre in applications, it has to be strengthened first. In fibre lasers, this is done by using Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs). These gratings replace conventional dielectric mirrors by acting as mirrors of varying reflectivity.

The light jumps back and forth between the Bragg Grating. A portion of the laser light passes through in one direction while the remaining light is reflected into the laser cavity. The part that passes through the grating becomes the laser beam. This beam is then sent through an oscillator (and sometimes a combiner) to improve coherence and then delivered as output.

Fibre Laser vs CO2 Laser

The main difference between these two processes is the source where the laser beam is created. As explained earlier, fibre laser source is silica glass mixed with a rare-earth element. On the other hand, CO2 laser source is a mixture of gases with CO2 being the main component.

Fibre lasers beat CO2 lasers almost on every front except the initial investment cost. For instance, CO2 lasers cannot cut many materials that are reflective. Fibre lasers handle better a greater number of those reflective metals such as copper, brass, aluminium and stainless steel. A fibre laser also requires less power and provides higher efficiency. All this at half the operating costs and five times the cutting speed of a CO2 laser (when cutting thin metals).

Although when cutting thicker materials (above 5mm) CO2 lasers are still generally preferred, the constant advances in fibre laser technology are widening the instances where this technology has the edge. Thus currently, it makes sense if your laser cutting service provider has access to both of these types of machines to accommodate different projects in an efficient way.

A fibre laser also provides better beam quality, higher reliability, lower carbon footprint, faster startup time, longer service life and remote processing capabilities. It also requires less maintenance as there are no mirrors or lenses involved. Mirror alignment on CO2 laser machines usually requires a professional or special training of the operator.

It also does not require a ceramic marking compound for laser engraving like a CO2 laser does. Although fibre lasers require a greater initial investment when compared to CO2 lasers, they are still a more cost-effective solution in the long run due to the lower Total Cost of Ownership (TCO).

Fibre Laser Applications

Due to the wide range of possible power outputs, fibre lasers are effectively used in many different applications. Some of these are:

Laser marking

Generally, ytterbium-doped fibre lasers with an emission wavelength of 1064 nm are considered perfect for laser marking applications. These lasers can mark plastic and metals with permanent, high-contrast marks. OEMs, as well as suppliers, require laser marking machines for part identification such as barcodes, logos or other texts.

These machines may be manual or automated and can be customised to keep up with short production cycles. In addition to marking, fibre laser equipment can be used for annealing, etching and engraving.

Laser cleaning

Fibre lasers can effectively clean metal surfaces of paint, oxide, rust, etc. This process is known as laser cleaning. The process can be automated and customised for different production line parameters.

Laser welding

Another important application for these lasers is in welding services. Fibre laser welding is one of the most promising upcoming technologies that is gaining market share fast due to the various benefits the process offers. Laser welding provides faster speeds, greater precision, lower deformation, higher quality and efficiency compared to traditional methods.

Laser cutting

Laser cutting is one of the most researched areas of fibre laser application. It can handle complex cuts with impressive edge quality. This makes it optimal for parts with close tolerances. Its adoption is increasing across the board with fabricators due to its long list of benefits. Let us take a look at what these are in the next section.

Fibre Laser Cutting Benefits

Compared to other laser types, a fibre laser has several characteristics which make it ideal for wider commercial use. We have divided these benefits into four categories:

Process benefits

  • Greater stability

  • High efficiency

  • Superb beam quality

  • Easy integration

  • Non-contact process

  • Faster speeds (though, CO2 lasers cut faster in a straight line)

  • Safer as the beam is absorbed more readily preventing reflection damage

Cost benefits

  • More cost-effective in the long run

  • High energy efficiency (~75%, the number for CO2 lasers is ~20%)

  • Reduced wastage

  • Reduced power usage

  • Reduced operator redundancy

  • Low operating cost

Equipment benefits

  • Scalability

  • Versatility across industries

  • More compact with a smaller footprint

  • Long service life

  • No periodic mirror realignment

  • Reduced set-up and downtimes

  • Eliminated tooling charges

Part quality benefits

  • Less heat damage to details

  • Material diversity

  • Better edge quality

  • Lower residual stresses

  • Reduced part contamination

We are ISO Licensed! | Particular Metals

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In this article at Special Metals Fabrication (SMF) we are ISO 9001:2015 qualified. This is a certification accredited by Top quality Devices Certifications Ltd, a Registered Accreditation Firm.

You can discover a copy of our latest certification in this article as properly as on our homepage and Assets page.

Dublin Manufacturing Group Supports Enlargement of Area Blood Bikes Charity

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Custom created racking and higher visibility graphics equipped for two new bikes by Bri-Stor Team

Enabling the charity to prolong it essential get the job done, Dublin centered production company, Bri-Stor Team, which consists of organizations Bri-Stor Programs, Alpha Production, Atlas Coating and Hex Graphics, has supported Shropshire, Dublin and Cheshire Blood Bikes to add two new bikes to their fleet.

Headed up by Alpha Manufacturing Creation Engineer and Blood Bikes volunteer Sam Weaver, the business has served to design, manufacture and in good shape racking to the bikes, which will residence temperature-managed containers necessary to transportation blood, vaccines and other necessary healthcare machines across the nation. Higher visibility graphics, akin to these utilized by the emergency companies have also been used to the autos.

The two new Moto Guzzi V85TT bikes, named Mark Mariner and Rainbow by the Blood Bikes Crew, have currently created their maiden outings, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire Blood Bikes 1 from Leighton Hospital to the Professional medical School at Birmingham College, and the 2nd to The Princess Royal Clinic in Telford.

Manufacturing Engineer and Blood Bikes Volunteer, Sam Weaver claimed: “As a person who is passionate about the do the job that Blood Bikes do, when I observed an opportunity for our organization to be able to lead, I realized we experienced to get concerned.

“It was great to be capable to get caught in coming up with the racks, fabricating and fitting them to the new bikes. Possessing these kinds of huge in-household abilities intended that had been able to quickly deliver the components for the bikes on-web page in just a couple times, as properly as get the high visibility graphics applied by the HEX Graphics team at the same time. It would make me very pleased to be equipped to see the new bikes in action, manufactured achievable by way of our operate.”

Blood BikesShropshire, Dublin and Cheshire Blood Bikes Fleet Supervisor, Nigel Howells explained: “We are so grateful to Sam and the workforce at Bri-Stor Group for aiding us with this project. The additional bikes we have on the highway, the larger the quantity of urgent health-related goods and blood products we can transport. Their get the job done has added two extra bikes to our fleet, enabling us to proceed and develop our companies.”

Bri-Stor Team hope to be capable to continue to help the charity with new bikes in foreseeable future.

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